Analysing the recent uprising by working-class Iran in the context of a battle for democracy which has spanned longer than a century.
The attacks show that even if ISIS loses the Iraqi side of its self-styled caliphate, the threat from the group may not subside.
The operation has led to thousands of civilians seeking shelter in government camps and at least 1,800 ISIS militant deaths.
The prediction of such a vast humanitarian emergency creates additional complications for the Iraqi government and its US allies.
The first attack was a suicide car bomb at a bustling market in the Shi’ite Muslim area of Sadr City. Two more blasts struck at the end of the working day.