The government claims to have improved urban development, with a multiplicity of schemes to address a number of issues. But the numbers tell a different story.
Alternative faecal sludge management systems that are effectively planned in a network to cover entire cities can make Swachh Bharat a reality.
As India considers more flexible and reliable ways of paying for the improvement of smart cities, the largely untapped municipal bond market can serve as a significant source of financial capital.
The lack of effective devolution of power to local governments is a major bottleneck in the essential transformation of urban India.