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New Delhi: Over the past few days, The Wire – in collaboration with 16 other media organisations – has been revealing the names of people who were either persons of interest or forensically identified as having been targeted by clients of the NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware.
Those on the list include heads of state, political figures, activists, students, lawyers and journalists, among others.
The France-based media non-profit organisation Forbidden Stories had accessed a leaked database of 50,000 numbers who may have been targeted for surveillance by clients of NSO Group. Since the Israeli company says that the advanced spyware is only sold to “vetted governments”, it is safe to assume that these individuals were targets or potential targets of government or military agencies.
The news organisations working on Pegasus Project were independently able to identify the owners of over 1,500 numbers across at least 10 countries. A small cross-section of these phones was forensically examined to find traces of Pegasus.
Amnesty International, in collaboration with The Wire, was able to forensically examine the phones of 10 Indians, all of which showed signs of either an attempted hack or a successful compromise.
To be sure, the presence of a number in the database does not imply that the person’s device was successfully targeted. Unless evidence is established through a forensic examination, it is impossible to say if there was an attempted or successful hack. Therefore, an important distinction has been made to differentiate the names that appear on the list. A potential target is someone whose number appears on the list, but whose device has not been forensically analysed by Amnesty. A person is classified as a target if their phones show evidence of an attempted or successful hack.
Until now, spread across several stories – all of which can be found here – The Wire has revealed the names of 161 people who were targets or potential targets for surveillance by clients of the NSO Group. All of them are listed below. Names that have been revealed by Pegasus Project partners but not by The Wire have not been included here.
Note: The list will be updated as The Wire publishes new stories.
The Wire has confirmed the numbers of at least 40 journalists who were either targets or potential targets for surveillance. Forensic analysis was conducted on the phones of seven journalists, of which five showed traces of a successful infection by Pegasus. [Read more: Snoop List Has 40 Indian Journalists, Forensic Tests Confirm Presence of Pegasus Spyware on Some]
1. M.K. Venu: A founding editor of The Wire. His phone was also forensically analysed and traces of Pegasus were found.
2. Sushant Singh: Former Indian Express journalist who writes on national security. After a forensic analysis of his phone, Amnesty arrived at the conclusion that it had been compromised.
3. Siddharth Varadarajan: A founding editor of The Wire, his phone was forensically analysed. The analysis showed that the phone was compromised by Pegasus.
4. Paranjoy Guha Thakurta: Former EPW editor, who now writes for Newsclick. His phone was compromised by Pegasus, forensic analysis revealed.
5. S.N.M. Abdi: Former Outlook journalist, whose phone was compromised according to forensic analysis.
6. Vijaita Singh: The Hindu journalist who covers the home ministry. Forensic analysis of her phone showed evidence of an attempted hack, but no evidence of a successful compromise.
7. Smita Sharma: Former TV18 anchor. Forensic analysis found evidence of an attempted hack but nothing to indicate that her phone was successfully infected.
8. Shishir Gupta: Executive editor at Hindustan Times
9. Rohini Singh: Freelance journalist who has written several exposes for The Wire about controversial business dealings of politicians or their family members.
10. Devirupa Mitra: The Wire‘s diplomatic editor.
11. Prashant Jha: Views editor of Hindustan Times, formerly the bureau chief.
12. Prem Shankar Jha: A veteran journalist who held editorial positions at Hindustan Times, the Times of India and several other newspapers. He is a regular contributor to The Wire.
13. Swati Chaturvedi: Freelance journalist who has contributed to The Wire. She wrote a book about the infamous BJP IT Cell.
14. Rahul Singh: Defence correspondent for Hindustan Times.
15. Aurangzeb Naqshbandi: A political reporter who formerly worked for Hindustan Times and covered the Congress party.
16. Ritika Chopra: A journalist for the Indian Express who covers the education and Election Commission beats.
17. Muzamil Jaleel: Another Indian Express journalist who covers Kashmir.
18. Sandeep Unnithan: India Today journalist who reports on defence and the Indian military.
19. Manoj Gupta: Editor of investigations and security affairs at TV18.
20. J. Gopikrishnan: An investigative reporter with The Pioneer, he broke the 2G telecom scam.
21. Saikat Datta: Formerly a national security reporter.
22. Ifthikar Gilani: Former DNA reporter who reports on Kashmir.
23. Manoranjan Gupta: Northeast-based editor in chief of Frontier TV.
24. Sanjay Shyam: A Bihar-based journalist.
25. Jaspal Singh Heran: An octogenarian who is the editor-in-chief of the Ludhiana-based Punjabi daily Rozana Pehredar.
26. Roopesh Kumar Singh: A freelance based in Jharkhand’s Ramgarh.
27. Deepak Gidwani: Former correspondent of DNA, Lucknow.
28. Sumir Kaul: A journalist for news agency PTI.
29. Shabir Hussain: A Delhi-based political commentator from Kashmir.
Politicians, political figures or individual linked to them
1. Rahul Gandhi: The Congress party leader who was presumed prime ministerial candidate for the past two general elections.
2. Alankar Sawai: A close aide of Rahul Gandhi.
3. Sachin Rao: Another aide of Rahul Gandhi who is a member of the Congress Working Committee.
[Read more: Rahul Gandhi Selected as Potential Spyware Target in Run Up to 2019 Polls and After]
4. Prashant Kishor: An election strategist who has worked for several political parties, including the BJP and the Congress. His phone was forensically analysed and showed signs of a successful hack.
5. Abhishek Banerjee: A Trinamool Congress MP who is the nephew of West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee.
[Read more: Prashant Kishor Hacked by Pegasus, Mamata’s Nephew Also Selected as Potential Snoop Target]
6. Ashwini Vaishnaw: A former IAS officer who was made a Union cabinet minister in the recent expansion.
7. Prahlad Singh Patel: Another cabinet minister in the Union government, his wife, secretaries, assistants, cook and gardener, etc.
8. Pravin Togadia: Former head of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad.
9. Pradeep Awasthi: Personal secretary to former Rajasthan chief minister Vasundhara Raje Scindia.
10. Sanjay Kachroo: A corporate executive who was chosen by then human resource development minister Smriti Irani as her officer on special duty in 2014, but was never formally appointed. Listed along with his father and minor son.
[Read more: BJP Ministers Ashwini Vaishnaw, Prahlad Patel Find Place in List of Potential Pegasus Targets]
11. G. Parameshwara: Deputy chief minister in the JD(S)-Congress coalition government in Karnataka, which was toppled after several MLAs defected to the BJP.
12: Satish: Personal secretary to H.D. Kumaraswamy, who was chief minister of Karnataka.
13. Venkatesh: Personal secretary to Siddaramaiah, who was the Congress chief minister of Karnataka before Kumaraswamy.
14. Manjunath Muddegowda: Security personnel of former prime minister and JD(S) president H.D. Devegowda.
15-19: Five social acquaintances of Congress president Rahul Gandhi: All of them requested that they not be identified
[Read more: Leaked Snoop List Suggests Surveillance May Have Played Role in Toppling of Karnataka Govt in 2019]
1. Ashok Lavasa: A career bureaucrat, he was a potential target of surveillance when he was an election commissioner.
[Read more: Ashok Lavasa Placed on Snoop List as EC After Flagging Modi’s 2019 Poll Code Violations]
Activists, lawyers and academicians
1. Hany Babu M.T.: Professor at Delhi University who is an accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
2. Rona Wilson: A prisoners’ rights activist who is another accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
3. Vernon Gonsalves: A rights activist. He is also accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
4. Anand Teltumbde: An academic and civil liberties activist who is accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
5. Shoma Sen: Retired professor and one of the accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
6. Gautam Navlakha: A journalist and rights activist who is accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
7. Arun Ferreira: A lawyer who is also accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
8. Sudha Bhardwaj: Activist and lawyer and accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
9. Pavana: The daughter of Telugu poet Varavara Rao, who is accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
10. Minal Gadling: The wife of lawyer Surendra Gadling, who is accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
11. Nihalsing Rathod: A lawyer and associate of Surendra Gadling.
12. Jagadish Meshram: Another lawyer who is associated with Surendra Gadling.
13. Maruti Kurwatkar: An accused in several cases under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. He was represented by Surendra Gadling.
14. Shalini Gera: A lawyer who has represented Sudha Bharadwaj.
15. Ankit Grewal: A close legal associate of Sudha Bharadwaj.
16. Jaison Cooper: Kerala-based rights activist who is a friend of Anand Teltumbde.
17. Rupali Jadhav: A member of cultural troupe Kabir Kala Manch.
18. Lalsu Nagoti: A lawyer who is a close associate of Mahesh Raut, who is accused in the Elgar Parishad case.
19. Soni Sori: Tribal rights activist who is based in Bastar.
20. Lingaram Kodopi: A journalist and the nephew of Soni Sori.
21. Degree Prasad Chouhan: An anti-caste activist who is the Chhattisgarh state president of the People’s Union for Civil Liberties.
22. Rakesh Ranjan: An assistant professor at the Sri Ram College of Commerce.
[Read more: Leaked Data Shows Surveillance Net in Elgar Parishad Case May Have Crossed a Line]
23. Ashok Bharti: Chairman of the All India Ambedkar Mahasabha, an umbrella association of Dalit rights’ groups.
24. Umar Khalid: Former student of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU). He was first arrested on sedition charges during the infamous JNU sloganeering case. He is now in jail, awaiting trial as an accused in the Delhi riots conspiracy case.
25. Anirban Bhattacharya: Another former JNU student who was arrested along with Khalid on sedition charges.
26. Banjyotsna Lahiri: Also a JNU student.
27. Bela Bhatia: A lawyer and human rights activist based in Chhattisgarh.
28. Shiv Gopal Mishra: A railway union leader.
29. Anjani Kumar: Delhi-based labour rights activist.
30. Alok Shukla: An anti-coal mining activist and convenor of the Chhattisgarh Bachao Andolan.
31. Saroj Giri: A Delhi University professor.
32. Shubhranshu Choudhary: A Bastar-based peace activist.
33. Sandeep Kumar Rai: Former BBC journalist and trade union activist.
34. Khalid Khan: A colleague of Sandeep Kumar Rai.
35. Ipsa Shatakshi: A Jharkhand-based activist.
[Read more: From Ambedkarites and Labour Activists to Umar Khalid and JNU Students, Snoop List Targets All]
37. S.A.R. Geelani: Delhi University professor who was convicted and later acquitted in the parliament bombing case. His phone was forensically analysed and showed signs of an infection by Pegasus.
38. G. Haragopal: A retired professor who taught at the University of Hyderabad. He was chairman of Saibaba Defence Committee. Three of his phones were forensically analysed and the results were inconclusive.
39. Vasantha Kumari: The wife of former Delhi University professor G.N. Saibaba, who was convicted for links with a banned Maoist organisation.
40. Jagdeep Chhokar: Co-founder of the watchdog Association for Democratic Reforms.
[Read more: Digital Forensics Show S.A.R. Geelani’s Phone Was Hacked, Likely With Zero-Click Exploit]
1. A former Supreme Court staffer: The woman had accused then chief justice of India Ranjan Gogoi of sexual harassment. Several members of her family were also potential targets for surveillance.
[Read more: Days After Accusing CJI Gogoi of Sexual Harassment, Staffer Put on List of Potential Snoop Targets]
Figures from the Northeast
1. Samujjal Bhattacharjee: An advisor to the All Assam Students Union and member of the high level committee to look into the implementation of Clause Six of the Assam Accord.
2. Anup Chetia: A leader of the United Liberation Front of Assam.
3. Malem Ningthouja: A Delhi-based writer who is from Manipur.
[Read more: Pegasus Project: Assam Numbers in List Show Footprint of Modi’s Citizenship Amendment Plans]
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1. Atem Vashum: A leader of the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN-Isak Muivah) who is assumed to be the successor to the group’s chairman Th. Muivah.
2. Apam Muivah: Another NSCN (I-M) leader who is Th. Muivah’s newphew.
3. Anthony Shimray: The commander in chief of the Naga Army of NSCN (I-M).
4. Phunthing Shimrang: The former commander in chief of the NSCN (I-M)’s Naga Army.
5. Kitovi Zhimomi: Convenor of the Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs). The Narendra Modi government was in parleys with the groups to find ‘one solution’ to the Naga issue.
[Read more: Despite Modi’s ‘Historic’ Nagaland Deal, Top NSCN Numbers Figure in Snoop List]
Scientists or those involved in the health sector
1. Gagandeep Kang: One of India’s foremost virologists who was involved in the fight against the Nipah virus.
[Read more: Paranoia Over Virus Research May Have Brought Gagandeep Kang, US CDC Officials on to Snoop List]
2. Hari Menon: The Indian head of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
CBI officers and individuals linked to them
1. Alok Verma: Former chief of the Central Bureau of Investigation, Verma was added to the list soon after he was ousted by the Modi government. The personal telephone numbers of his wife, daughter and son-in-law would eventually get placed on the list too, making it a total of 8 numbers from this one family.
2. Rakesh Asthana: Asthana, then a senior CBI officer, was added to the list the same time as Verma. He is seen to be close to the Modi dispensation and currently heads the BSF.
3. A.K. Sharma: Another senior CBI official, added to the list at the same time as Asthana and Verma.
[Read more: ‘Chronology Samajhiye’: Hours After Midnight Coup, CBI Chief Alok Verma Entered Surveillance Zone]
Businesspersons linked to defence sector
1. Anil Ambani: Reliance ADAG chairman. The phone numbers that have been used by Anil Ambani were added to the list in 2018, when controversy over the Rafale deal had intensified.
2. Tony Jesudasan: Corporate communications chief at ADAG. His number was added at the same time as Ambani’s. A number used by Jesudasan’s wife is also on the list.
3. Venkata Rao Posina: Dassault Aviation’s representative in India.
4. Inderjit Sial: Former Saab India head.
5. Pratyush Kumar: Boeing India boss.
6. Harmanjit Nagi: Head of the French energy firm EDF.
[Read more: On the List: Anil Ambani, Dassault’s Rep and the India Head of French Energy Firm EDF]
Tibetan officials, activists, clerics in India
1. Tempa Tsering: Dalai Lama’s long-term envoy in New Delhi.
2. Tenzin Taklha: Senior aide of the Dalai Lama’s.
3. Chimmey Rigzen: Senior aide of the Dalai Lama’s.
4. Lobsang Sangay: Former head of the Tibetan government in exile.
1. Bilal Lone: A separatist leader and brother of Peoples Conference leader Sajad Lone. His phone was forensically examined. Even though the device he was using is not the same as the one he used when he was potentially targeted as per the leaked database, forensic analysis revealed signs of Pegasus spyware.
2. Tariq Bukhari: Brother of Apni Party leader Altaf Bukhari. He is a businessman and political leader who was questioned by the NIA in April 2019 for a ‘terror funding’ case.
3. Syed Naseem Geelani: A scientist who is the son of prominent separatist leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani.
4. Mirwaiz Umar Farooq: A separatist leader and head of the Hurriyat Conference, he is the chief cleric of the Jama Masjid.
5. Waqar Bhatti: Prominent human rights activist.
6. Zaffar Akbar Bhat: An influential Shia cleric who is associated with the Hurriyat and a prominent separatist leader.
7. Kashmir civil society activist
8. Kashmiri businessman
[Read more: Forensic Evidence Shows Attempts Were Made to Infect Phones in Kashmir With Pegasus]
National security figures
1. K.K. Sharma: He was the head of the Border Security Force (BSF) when he was selected as a potential target of surveillance.
2. Jagdish Maithani: BSF inspector general who was integral to the Union home ministry’s comprehensive integrated border management system (CIBMS) or smart fencing project.
3. Jitendra Kumar Ojha: An senior official from the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). He was selected as a potential target of surveillance after he was eased out of service in January 2018 and moved the Central Administrative Tribunal against this decision.
4. Colonel Mukul Dev: An army officer who took on the government order that scrapped free rations for officers who are posted in peace areas.
5. Colonel Amit Kumar: Another army officer who filed a petition in the Supreme Court on behalf of 356 Army personnel against what they apprehended was an impending dilution of the Armed Forces (Special Forces) Act (AFSPA).
[Read more: From Army and BSF to RAW, Spyware Threat Touched National Security Field Too]
Bureaucrats, officials from investigating agencies
1. Rajeshwar Singh: Senior Enforcement Directorate officer who led several high-profile investigations conducted by his agency. His wife and both his sisters were also potential targets of surveillance.
2. Abha Singh: Rajeshwar Singh’s sister, who is a lawyer in Mumbai. Her mobile phone was forensically analysed but the results proved inconclusive.
3. V.K. Jain: A former Indian Administrative Service officer who worked as a personal assistant to Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal.
[Read more: Key ED Officer, Kejriwal’s Aide, PMO & NITI Aayog Officials Figure in Pegasus Project List]
Bihar cricket official
1. Rakesh Tiwary: The current chief of the Bihar Cricket Association.
[Read more: Pegasus Project: Shadow of Spyware Falls on Bihar Cricket Field Too]
Businesspersons, PSU bureaucrats and lobbyists
1. Naresh Goyal: Former boss of Jet Airways who has run into legal troubles.
2. Ajay Singh: SpiceJet chairman and managing directo.
3. Prashant Ruia: Director of Essar Group.
4. Vikram Kothari: Associated with Rotomac Pens, a group that was investigated for loan fraud.
5. Rahul Kothari: Vikram Kothari’s son.
6. C. Sivasankaran: Former Aircel promoter and maverick entrepreneur, who was also under investigation.
7. B.C. Tripathi: The former head of the state-run GAIL India. He joined Essar in January 2020 as non-executive chairman.
8. V. Balasubramanian: A long-time lobbyist associated with Reliance Industries.
9. A.N. Sethuraman: A lobbyist associated with the Reliance ADA Group.
10. Business executive from the Adani group
[Read more: Pegasus Project: From Naresh Goyal, Ajay Singh, Prashant Ruia to PSUs, India Inc in the Viewfinder]
Tamil politicians and activists
1. Seeman: A leader of the Naam Thamizhar Katchi, he is vocal in his support to the cause of Sri Lankan Tamils.
2: Thirumurugan Gandhi: Founder of the May 17 movement, which fights for the rights of Sri Lankan Tamils. He also supported the anti-Sterlite protests and other civil rights movements.
3. K. Ramakrishnan: An activist with decades of experience. He is with the Dravidar Kazhagam, who later split from the movement to launch the Thanthai Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam.
4. Kumaresan: The treasurer of the Dravidar Kazhagam, which was founded by Periyar.
Punjab rights activists
1. Jaspal Singh Manjhpur: Lawyer
2. Jagdeep Singh Randhawa: Tarn Taran-based advocate, works with Khalra Mission Organisation
Supreme Court judge, officials and lawyers
1. N.K. Gandhi: A former Supreme Court registrar who worked in the crucial ‘writ’ section of the top court’s registry.
2. T.I. Rajput: Another Supreme Court registrar.
3. Justice Arun Mishra: Retired Supreme Court judge who is now head of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). A number that was registered in the judge’s name was selected as a potential target of surveillance. While sources in the BSNL told The Wire that the number in question was registered in Justice Mishra’s name from September 18, 2010 to September 19, 2018, the judge said he had surrendered it on April 21, 2014.
4. Vijay Agarwal: Counsel for fugitive diamantaire Nirav Modi. He was selected as a potential target of surveillance after he signed on as Modi’s lawyer. His wife’s number was also selected as a potential target.
5. Aljo P. Joseph: Lawyer who represents Christian Michel, accused in the Agusta-Westland scam. His iPhone data is being forensically examined and Amnesty’s tech team says there are preliminary indications of targeting by Pegasus.
6. M. Thangathurai: A junior lawyer who works for former attorney general Mukul Rohatgi. He said that his telephone number is listed under his boss’s name in many places such as the bank so that the senior advocate is not disturbed by “routine” calls.
[Read more: Supreme Court Registrars, Lawyers of Key Clients and Old Number of an SC Judge on Pegasus Radar]
1. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador: He is now the president of Mexico, but was targeted before his election in 2018. Several of his aides were also targeted.
[Read more: Before His Election in 2018, Mexican President Was Encircled By a Massive Spying Campaign]
2. Emmanuel Macron: The president of France.
[Read more: Pegasus Project: How Morocco Took an Interest in French President Emmanuel Macron’s Phone]
3. Imran Khan: The prime minister of Pakistan.
4. Mostafa Madbouly: The prime minister of Egypt.
5. Saad-Eddine El Othmani: The prime minister of Morocco.
6. Barham Salih: The president of Iraq.
7. Cyril Ramaphosa: The president of South Africa.
8. Mohammed VI: Morocco’s king.
9. Saad Hariri: Former prime minister of Lebanon.
10: Ruhakana Rugunda: Former prime minister of Uganda.
11. Noureddine Bedoui: Former prime minister of Algeria.
12. Charles Michel: Former prime minister of Belgium who is currently the president of the European Council.
13. Panah Huseynov: Former prime minister of Azerbaijan.
14. Felipe Calderon: Former Mexican president.
[Read more: Pegasus Project: 14 World Leaders in Leaked Database]
People linked to Jamal Khashoggi
Jamal Khashoggi was a Saudi dissident who wrote for the Washington Post. He was murdered in the Saudi embassy in Turkey by assassins who were allegedly sent by the Saudi government. Several people who were associated with him or the investigation into his deaths were targets or potential targets for surveillance.
1. Hatice Cengiz: A Turkish doctorate student who was engaged to Jamal Khashoggi. Her phone was analysed forensically.
2. Hanan Elatr: She was married to Khashoggi. Her phone was also forensically analysed.
3. Wadah Khanfar: The former director general of Al Jazeera television network. His phone was forensically analysed.
4. Turan Kislakci: A Turkish journalist who introduced Khashoggi to Cengiz.
5. Irfan Fidan: The Turkish chief prosecutor in charge of investigations into Khashoggi’s murder.
[Read more: Hacking Software Was Used to Spy on Jamal Khashoggi’s Wife Months Before His Murder]
Individuals linked to Dubai ruler
1. Sheikha Latifa: A member of the Dubai royal family and the daughter of UAE’s prime minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. When she attempted to flee her father’s custody, she was captured by Indian forces near Goa and sent back to Dubai.
2. Haya bint Hussein: Estranged wife of Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum.
[Read more: Before Indian Soldiers Captured Dubai Princess on High Seas, UAE Zeroed in on Her Friends’ Numbers]
3. David Haigh: British activist and lawyer who was involved in the campaign to release Sheikha Latifa and is consulting with the legal team of Princess Haya bint Hussein. Forensic analysis of his phone has confirmed that it was infected by Pegasus.
[Read more: New Forensic Test Confirms Pegasus Infection on British Activist Linked to Dubai Princesses]
The Pegasus Project is a collaborative investigation that involves more than 80 journalists from 17 news organisations in 10 countries coordinated by Forbidden Stories with the technical support of Amnesty International’s Security Lab. Read all our coverage here.