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Economy

200+ Senior Economists Ask UN, World Bank to Act Against Extreme Global Inequalities

"We are living through a time of extraordinarily high economic inequality. Extreme poverty and extreme wealth have risen sharply and simultaneously for the first time in 25 years."

New Delhi: A group of 236 senior economists from across the world have written to United Nations secretary-general Antonio Guterres and World Bank president Ajay Banga, asking that they work to reduce extreme inequalities across the world.

The letter has been authored by Nobel prize winner and professor at Columbia University Joseph Stiglitz and professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst Jayati Ghosh, and signed by economists from 67 countries.

“We know that high inequality undermines all our social and environmental goals,” the letter states. “…Goals matter. Leadership matters. The Bank and UN SDGs are uniquely placed to offer the rallying call for a reduction in inequality that our divided world needs so urgently today. We ask you to seize this opportunity to back stronger goals and better metrics for both wealth and income, as well as wage shares of national income. Also, SDG10 is not a separate, standalone goal: all economic, financial, and social policies should be assessed in terms of their likely impact on this goal. This would clearly signal our collective ambition to forge a more equal world.”

Read the full text of the letter below.

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Dear Secretary-General of the United Nations Antonio Guterres and President of the World Bank Ajay Banga,

As a group of economists and leaders in the fight against extreme inequalities from around the world, we write to request your leadership towards ensuring that the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the World Bank back vital new strategic goals and indicators, that can redouble efforts to address rising extreme inequality.

We are living through a time of extraordinarily high economic inequality. Extreme poverty and extreme wealth have risen sharply and simultaneously for the first time in 25 years. Between 2019 and 2020, global inequality grew more rapidly than at any time since WW2. The richest 10% of the global population currently takes 52% of global income, whereas the poorest half of the population earns 8.5% of it. Billions of people face the terrible hardship of high and rising food prices and hunger, whilst the number of billionaires has doubled in the last decade.

We know that high inequality undermines all our social and environmental goals. The 2006 World Development Report, as well as multiple other studies, have shown that extreme inequality of the kind we are observing today has a destructive effect on society. It corrodes our politics, destroys trust, hamstrings our collective economic prosperity and weakens multilateralism. We also know that without a sharp reduction in inequality, the twin goals of ending poverty and preventing climate breakdown will be in clear conflict.

In 2015, all the governments of the world made history by setting themselves a Sustainable Development Goal to reduce inequalities – “SDG10”. Yet since then, following the COVID-19 pandemic and now the global cost of living crisis inequalities have worsened, by many measures.  SDG10 remains largely ignored. Equally troubling, the main SDG10 target, based on the World Bank’s Shared Prosperity goal, does not adequately measure or monitor key aspects of inequality.  Evidence from household surveys shows that one in five countries showing a positive trend in Shared Prosperity simultaneously saw inequality by other measures, like the Palma Ratio, increase, including countries such as Mongolia, Chile and Vietnam.

This summer we have a critical opportunity to strengthen our resolve to reduce this deep divide and send a clear signal to people around the world that the institutions designed to serve them are serious about ending this crisis of extreme inequality.

We must strengthen our existing goals. We must act this summer to secure agreement that the UN SDG 10 must also have strengthened targets and better metrics, looking at inequalities both between countries and within them by using indicators that track wealth as well as income inequality. We are pleased that the World Bank is reviewing its Shared Prosperity goal. The new leadership of the World Bank has a tremendous opportunity to strengthen this goal to assess inequalities across the entire spectrum of the income and wealth distribution.

There have been significant advances in inequality data, such as more accurate estimates of top incomes, helping to enable a new generation of policy making rooted in a clear distributional analysis of the impact of policy changes.  These need to be systematised and pushed further, to enable high-level inequality analysis by every government. This will be the only way to ensure broad political consensus for the transformation our economies must make to a zero-carbon future.

Goals matter. Leadership matters. The Bank and UN SDGs are uniquely placed to offer the rallying call for a reduction in inequality that our divided world needs so urgently today. We ask you to seize this opportunity to back stronger goals and better metrics for both wealth and income, as well as wage shares of national income. Also, SDG10 is not a separate, standalone goal: all economic, financial, and social policies should be assessed in terms of their likely impact on this goal. This would clearly signal our collective ambition to forge a more equal world.

Yours

ID Name Role and Organisation (for printout/public release)
Joseph Stiglitz (Coauthor and lead signatory of the letter) Professor of economics at Columbia university; former Chief Economist at the World Bank
Jayati Ghosh (Coauthor and lead signatory of the letter) Professor of economics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA; formerly Chairperson of the Centre for Economic Studies and Planning at the Jawaharlal Nehru University,
1 A. Harooon Akram-Lodhi Professor of Economics and International Development Studies, Trent University
2 Aaron Reeves Professor, University of Oxford
3 Aasha Kapur Mehta Chairperson, Centre for Gender Studies, Institute for Human Development
4 Abu Shonchoy Associate Professor, Florida International University
5 Adeeba Kamarulzaman Pro Vice Chancellor& President, Monash University Malaysia
6 Alex Cobham Chief executive, Tax Justice Network
7 Alicia Puyana Mutis Economics Professor, Facultad Latinoamericana De Ciencias Sociales
8 Amar Yumnam Visiting Professor, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad, India.
9 Ameenah Gurib-Fakim,  President of Mauritius 2015-2018
10 Amit Singh Khokhar Assistant Professor, Delhi Skill and Entrepreneurship University
11 Amre Moussa  Secretary General of the Arab League 2001-2011, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt 1991-2001
12 Andres Lazzarini Lecturer In Economics, Goldsmiths University of London
13 Aneek Chowdhury Research Analyst, Arcus Policy Research
14 Anisuzzaman Chowdhury Former Director, Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division & Director, Statistics Division, UN-ESCAP; Adjunct Professor, Western Sydney University
15 Anita Kelles-Viitanen Former Senior Gender Advisor in ILO for South Asia; Policy Advisor on Innovation Management at IFAD and Senior Consultant on Gender at IFAD; Senior Consultant;  And Former Manager of Social Development At Asian Development Bank, Socio-Cultural Value
16 Anjana Thampi Assistant Professor, O. P. Jindal Global University
17 Anthony Shorrocks Former Director, World Institute for Development Economics Research; Director, Global Economic Perspectives
18 Anuradha Chenoy Retired Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
19 Arthur Macewan Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts Boston
20 Assane Diop Minister, Adviser of The President, Presidency of The Republic of Senegal
21 Awanish Kumar Assistant Professor, Azim Premji University
22 Ban Ki-Moon Eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations Club de Madrid Honorary Member
23 Barzin Jafartash Columnist, Donyaye Eghtesad Newspaper
24 Ben Fine Former UNCTAD, UNESCWA, UNDESA and UNRISD Consultant; Emeritus Professor, SOAS
25 Bertie Ahern Former Prime Minister of Ireland Former Prime Minister of Ireland
26 Bhavani R V Consultant, FAO
27 Bonn Juego Chair, Finnish Society for Development Research
28 Boris Tadic  President of Serbia 2004-2012
29 Bruno De Conti Associate Professor, University of Campinas
30 C. Saratchand Professor, Satyawati College, University of Delhi
31 Carlos Antonio Rozo Bernal Professor Titular C, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México
32 Carlos Oya Professor of Political Economy of Development, Sosa University of London
33 Carmen Diana Deere Distinguished Professor Emerita of Latin American Studies and Food & Resource Economics, University of Florida
34 Chinglen Maisnam Professor, Manipur University
35 Chiril Gaburici  Prime Minister of Moldova 2015
36 Chris Baker Editor, Siam Society
239 Dani Rodrik President of the International Economic Association; Professor of International Political Economy, Harvard University
37 David Barkin Distinguished Professor, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana
38 David G Legge Member / Scholar Emeritus, People’s Health Movement / La Trobe University, Melbourne
39 Delfno Vargas Full Professor, National Autonomous University of Mexico
40 Desmond Mcneill Emeritus Professor, Sum, University of Oslo
41 Dev Nathan Professor, Institute for Human Development
42 Dilli Raj Khanal Founder Chairman, Institute for Policy Research And Development(Iprad)
43 Dimitri Papadimitriou President & Professor of Economics, Levy Economics institute of Bard College
44 Dipa Sinha Assistant Professor, Ambedkar University Delhi
45 Djoomart Otorbaev  Former Prime Minister of Kyrgyz Republic
46 Dr Hibist Kassa Policy Interface Fellow, University of Leicester
47 Dr Kalim Siddiqui Senior Lecturer, University of Huddersfield
48 Dr Preeti Edakunny Researcher And Academic, EE Labs
49 Dr. H.S.Shylendra Professor, Institute of Rural Management Anand (Irma)
50 Dr. Javaid Iqbal Khan Assistant Professor, University of Kashmir
51 Dr. Laila Kholid Alfirdaus Chair of Doctoral Program in Social Sciences, Universitas Diponegoro
52 Dr. Papia Sengupta Assistant Professor/ British Academy Visiting Fellow, University of Sheffield and Jawaharlal Nehru University
53 Dr. Rimple Manchanda Associate Professor, Gd Goenka University
54 Duncan Green Professor In Practice, London School of Economics
55 Edwin Director, Openspace
56 Eka Tkeshelashvili  Deputy Prime Minister of Georgia 2010-2012
57 Elizabeth M. King Nonresident Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
58 Emilie Agner Damm Analysechef, Arbejderbevægelsens Erhvervsr¨D
59 Emmanuel Tweneboah Senzu Visiting Professor, Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law, University of Liberia
60 [email protected] Director, Ismeri Europa
61 Erwin Bulte Professor of Development Economics, Wageningen University
62 Falendra Kumar Professor, University of Jammu
63 Filip Vujanovic  President of Montenegro 2003-2018
64 Frances Stewart Former Senior adviser to UNICEF; Emeritus Professor of Development Economics, University of Oxford
65 Francisco H. G. Ferreira Former Senior Advisor, Research Department, World Bank; Amartya Sen Professor of Inequality Studies, London School of Economics
66 Francois Bourguignon Former Chief Economist World Bank; Emeritus Professor, Paris School of Economics
67 Gabriel Zucman Professor, Paris School of Economics
68 Gabriele Koehler Former UN Resident Coordinator; former UNICEF regional advisor; Board Member, Women Engage for A Common Future
69 Geetha Gokul Assistant Professor, St. Thomas College, Thrissur, Kerala, India
70 Gerald Epstein Professor of Economics and Co-Director, Peri, University of Massachusetts Amherst
71 Gerry Rodgers Former Director, International Institute for Labour Studies; Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi
72 Getaneh Gobezie Gender And Rural Finance Consultant, Wisdom Consult
73 Gilad Isaacs Executive Director, Institute for Economic Justice
74 Giorgos Kallis Professor, ICTA-UAB
75 Giovanni Andrea Cornia 1981-87, Chief Economist UNICEF HQ, UNICEF; 1987-95 Director of the Economic and Social Policies Research Programme at UNICEF-ICDC- Florence – 1995-99; Honorary Professor of Economics, University of Florence
76 Girma T. Kassie Principal Agricultural Market Economist, Icarda
77 Giuseppe Tattara Retired, University of Venice
78 Godfred A Bokpin Professor, University of Ghana
79 Guy Standing Former Director International Labour Organisation; Professorial Research Associate, SOAS University of London
80 Harmanender Singh PhD Research Scholar, Panjab University Chandigarh
81 Helen Clark Patron Helen Clark Foundation; 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand 1999-08; UNDP Administrator 2009-17,
82 Herni Ramdlaningrum Former Project Management Specialist at the UNDP; Program Manager, The PRAKARSA
83 Himanshu Associate Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
84 Hussain Jarwar Chief Executive Officer, Indus Consortium
85 Ian Goldin Former Vice President and Director of Policy at the World Bank; Professor, Oxford University
86 Ignacio González Assistant Professor, American University
87 Igor Luksic  Prime Minister of Montenegro 2010-2012, Minister of Foreign Affairs 2012-2016
88 Ilene Grabel Distinguished University Professor, University of Denver, Josef Korbel School of international Studies
89 Irene Van Staveren Professor of Pluralist Development Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
90 Isabel Ortiz Former Director at ILO and UNICEF, senior advisor at UNDESA and ADB; Director, Global Social Justice
91 Ishita Mukhopadhyay Professor, University of Calcutta
92 Ismail Serageldin Vice President of the World Bank 1992-2000, Co-Chair Nizami Ganjavi International Center
93 Ivo Josipovic  President of Croatia 2010-2015
94 Jadranka Kosor  Prime Minister of Croatia 2009-2011
95 James B. Davies Professor Emeritus, University of Western Ontario
96 James K Boyce Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Amherst
97 Jan Fisher,  Prime Minister of the Czech Republic 2009-2010
98 Jan Vandemoortele Former Director of Poverty; UN Resident & Humanitarian Coordinator; Independent Researcher & Lecturer, Ex-UNICEF/Undo/Ila
99 Jayati Ghosh  Professor of Economics
100 Jens Martens Executive Director, Global Policy forum Europe
101 Joaquín Arriola Full Time Professor, Universidad Del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea
102 John E. Ataguba Canada Research Chair in Health Economics, University of Manitoba and African Health Economics And Policy Association
103 John Miller Professor of Economics, Wheaton College
104 Jomo Kwame Sundaram Former UN-DESA Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development; Adviser, Khazanah Research institute
105 Jonathan D. Ostry Former Deputy Director at the IMF; Professor of The Practice, Georgetown University
106 Jose Antonio Ocampo Executive Secretary of ECLAC and Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs; Professor, Sipa, Columbia University
107 José Gabriel Palma Emeritus Senior Lecturer and Professor of Economics, Respectively, University of Cambridge And University of Santiago
108 Joseph Muscat  Prime Minister of Malta 2013-2020
109 Juan Carlos Moreno Brid Associate Director ECLAC; Full Professor, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De Mexico
110 Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky Former UN Independent Expert on Debt and Human Rights; Researcher, Researcher at Conicet
111 Juan Santarcángelo DESA, UN (NY) in 2005; Professor, Conicet- Universidad Nacional De Quilmes
112 Juan Somavia Former Director General, International Labour Organization (ILO); Presidente, Foro De Politica Exterior Chile
113 Jude Onemolease Chief Executive officer, Durandel Ltd
114 Julia De Medeiros Braga Coordinator of Current Economic Affairs At Ipea , Uff And Ipea
115 Justin Yifu Lin Former Chief Economist/Senior Vice President at World Bank; Dean, Institute of New Structural Economics, Peking University
116 K Veena Research Scholar, Institute for Social And Economic Change
117 Karkada Nagaraj Adjunct Faculty, ACJ Chennai. ,
118 Kate Meagher Professor of Development Studies, London School of Economics
119 Kate Pickett Professor of Epidemiology, University of York and Health Equity North
120 Kate Raworth Co-author of the UNDP Human Development Report 1997-2001; Senior Teaching Associate, Environmental Change institute, University of Oxford
121 Kaushik Basu Former Chief Economist of the World Bank; Professor of Economics and Carl Marks Professor, Cornell University
122 Kevin Watkins Visiting Professor, LSE; former editor of the Human Development Report – From 2004 to 2008, he was director of the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report.
123 Korkut Boratav Consultant, UNCTAD; Consultant, UN Office at Geneva; Member, Turkish Social Science Organisation
124 Krittika Dirghangi Research Associate, Arcus Policy Research
125 Kul Chandra Gautaam Former Deputy Executive Director, UNICEF & Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations; Chair of the Board of RESULTS.org, Ex-UNICEF and United Nations
126 Léonce Ndikumana Former Senior Economic Affairs Officer, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa; Distinguished Professor, University of Massachusetts Amherst
127 Leterme Prime minister of Belgium 2009 to December 2011; Trustee at NGIC
128 Lídia Brun Carrasco Research Fellow, American University
129 Lucas Chancel Co-Director, Sciences Po & World inequality Lab
130 Luis Bértola Full Professor, Universidad De La República, Uruguay
131 M. Mustafa Erdogdu Dean, Beykoz University
132 Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona Former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights; Executive Director, The Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
133 Manfred Nitsch Professor Emeritus, Freie Universitaet Berlin
134 Maniklal Adhikary Professor of Economics, The University of Burdwan
135 Manjula Laxman Dabhi Professor, Gujarat Vidyapith
136 Manuel Branco Full Professor, University of Évora
137 Maria Fernanda Espinosa Former President of the UN General Assembly; CEO GWLvoices, 73rd President of the UNGA, GWLvoices
138 Maria S. Floro Emeritus Professor of Economics, American University
139 Mariana Mazzucato Professor And Founding Director of Iipp, University College London
140 Mario Biggeri Full Professor in Applied Economics, Department of Economics And Management University of Florence, Italy
141 Mark Malloch-Brown President Open Society Foundations Former: Deputy Secretary-General of the UN, Administrator of UNDP, Vice-President for External Affairs (World Bank), and Vice-President for United Nations Affairs (World Bank)
142 Marrit Van Den Berg Associate Professor, Wageningen University and Research
143 Martin Guzman Co-President, Columbia’s Initiative for Policy Dialogue., Columbia University
144 Matías Vernengo Professor, Bucknell University
145 Mats Karlsson Vice President, World Bank 1999-2002, Vice Chair UN High-Level Committee on Programs 2000-2010
146 Matthew Martin Executive Director, Development Finance international
147 Md. Wakilur Rahman Professor, Bangladesh Agricultural University
148 Meezan Anjum Researcher, JNU, New Delhi
149 Michael Ash Professor of Economics and Public Policy, University of Massachusetts Amherst
150 Mike Savage Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics
151 Miranda Stewart External consultant, International Monetary Fund; Professor, University of Melbourne
152 Mirko Cvetkovic STC World Bank; Member, NGIC
153 Mladen Ivanic  President of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2014-2018
154 Mogens Lykketoft President of the United Nations General Assembly 2015-2016; Retired and Chairman of Company Board, former Minister, Member And Speaker of Parliament
155 Mohit PhD Research Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
156 Mridul Eapen Honorary Fellow, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum
157 Mrityunjoy Mohanty Professor, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
158 Muhammad Nur Amal Bin Mohamad Matahab Assistant Director, Prime Minister’s Department of Malaysia
159 Muhammed Abdul Khalid Research Fellow, National University of Malaysia
160 Muhammed Muqtada Former Director, Policy Planning, Employment Sector, ILO, Geneva
161 Murat Özturk Faculty Member, Kırklareli University
162 Narasimha Reddy Duvvuru Professor of Economics (Rtd), University of Hyderabad
163 Nick Robins Former Co-Director UNEP Inquiry into a Sustainable Financial System Professor In Practice – Sustainable Finance, Grantham Research institute, London School of Economics
164 Nicos Trimikliniotis Professor, University of Nicosia
165 Olivier De Schutter Former UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food
166 Oluwasola Omoju Economist/Research Fellow, National institute for Legislative And Democratic Studies
167 Omar S Dahi Professor of Economics, Hampshire College
168 Pablo Samaniego Ponce Professor, Pontificia Universidad Católica Del Ecuador
169 Parthapratim Pal Professor, Indian institute of Management Calcutta
170 Pasuk Phongpaichit Emeritus Professor in Political Economy, Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University
171 Patrick Opoku Asuming Senior Lecturer, University of Ghana
172 Paul Robert Gilbert Senior Lecturer in International Development, University of Sussex
173 Petar Stoyanov  President of Bulgaria 1997-2002
174 Peter Jacobs Strategic Lead Academic, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
175 Philip Alston Former UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights; John Norton Pomeroy Professor of Law, New York University
176 Prakash Loungani Assistant Director at IMF; Program Director, Johns Hopkins University
177 Prof Ritu Dewan Director & Professor (R), Mumbai School of Economics & Public Policy
178 Professor Imraan Valodia Pro Vice-Chancellor and Director, Southern Centre for inequality Studies, University of The Witwatersrand
179 Pulin B Nayak Member, CDE, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics
180 Rahul Goswami Adviser, Centre for Social Markets
181 Raimonds Vejonis  President of Latvia (2015-2019)
182 Raja Junankar Former Consultant to the IMF; Adjunct Professor at Unsw and emeritus professor at Western Sydney University, Unsw And Western Sydney University
183 Raja Khalidi Former Senior Economic Affairs, UNCTAD; Director General, Palestine Economic Policy Research institute (Mas)
184 Rajiv Jha Associate Professor, Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, Delhi University
185 Ravi Kanbur Former World Bank Chief Economist for Africa; Professor, Cornell University
186 Rexhep Meidani  President of Albania 1997-2002
187 Richard Jolly Former Assistance Secretary General of UN; Honorary Professor and Research Associate of the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, University of Sussex
188 Richard Lusimbo Director General, Uganda Key Populations Consortium (Ukpc)
189 Richard Wilkinson Patron, The Equality Trust
190 Rishvanth Reddy Mucheli Guest Faculty, Christ (Deemed To Be University), India
191 Robert Hunter Wade World Bank economist in 1980 in Agricultural Research Unit and in Trade Policy Division; Professor of Global Political Economy, London School of Economics
192 Robert Pollin Distinguished University Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst
193 Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos Volunteer, Dobro
194 Rohit Azad Faculty, Jun, Delhi, India
195 Rohith Jyothish Assistant Professor, O.P. Jindal Global University, India
196 Rolph Van Der Hoeven Former Director for Policy Coherence, ILO; Professor Emeritus, International institute of Social Studies
197 Rosen Plevneliev  President of Bulgaria 2012-2017
198 Rui Mate Researcher, Center for Public Integrity
199 Sakiko Fukuda-Parr Former Director, Human Development Report Office, UNDP; Professor of International Affairs, The New School
200 Samuele Bibi Assistant Professor, Northumbria University
201 Sandra Polaski Former Deputy Director General, International Labor Organization; Senior Research Scholar, Boston University Global Economic Governance initiative
202 Sandrine Dixson-Declève President, The Club of Rome
203 Sankar Varma Research Scholar, Christ (Deemed To Be University)
204 Sarah Cliffe Former UN ASG for civilian capacities, Former Special Representative for the World Bank’s World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development; World Bank’s chief of mission for Timor Leste (1999 to 2002), World Bank Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group from 2002-2007; Director of Strategy and Operations for the East Asia and Pacific Region from 2007-2009;  Director, NYU Center on international Cooperation
205 Sarah Cook Former Director, UNRISD & UNICEF Innocenti Office of Research; Visiting Professor, Southern Centre for inequality Studies
206 Sattwick Dey Biswas Research Fellow, Institute of Public Policy, National Law School of India University
207 Saul Escobar Toledo Presidente De La Junta De Gobierno, instituto De Estudios Obreros “Rafael Galván” Ac
208 Sergio Cesaratto Professor of Economics, Dipartimento Di Economia E Statistica – Università Di Siena
209 Servaas Storm Senior Lecturer, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
210 Shipra Nigam Fellow, Institute of Human Development
211 Sunanda Sen Retired Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi India
212 Surajit Mazumdar Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
213 Taitu Heron Head/Senior Development Specialist, University of The West indies Open Campus
214 Tamas Szentes Emeritus Professor, Corvinus University, Budapest
215 Tamás Szentes Contracted regional coordinator of UNU research program on Global Crisis and Transformation, 1983-87 Academician And Professor Emeritus, Hungarian Academy of Science And Corvinus University of Budapest
216 Teresa Ghilarducci Professor, The New School
217 Terry Ray Mckinley Policy Specialist; Contributor to the Human Development Report and Director of the International Poverty Centre in Brazil Professorial Research Associate, SOAS
218 Thomas Ferguson Director of Research, institute for New Economic Thinking
219 Thomas Piketty Professor of economics,
220 Thomas Pogge Director, Global Justice Program, Yale, Yale University
221 Thomas S. O’Connell Former Senior Health Advisor, WHO and UNCIEF; CEO And Founder, Global Health Synergies LLC
222 Till Kellerhoff Program Director, The Club of Rome
223 Tzipi Livni Vice-Prime Minister of Israel, Minister of Foreign Affairs 2006-2009
224 Utsa Patnaik Professor Emeritus, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Retired Teacher Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi India
225 Valdis Zatlers President of Latvia 2007-2011
226 Vamsi Vakulabharanam Co-Director, Asian Political Economy Program, And Associate Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst
227 Venkatesh Athreya Adjunct Professor, Asian College of Journalism, Chennai
228 Vishnu N Ramani Research Fellow, National institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi
229 Volkan Bozkir 75th President of the UNGA;
230 Vuk Jeremić 67th President of the UNGA; President, Center for international Relations and Sustainable Development
231 Werner Raza Director, Austrian Foundation for Development Research
232 Yavuz Yasar Professor, University of Denver
233 Zahra Karimi Moughari University Professor, University of Mazandaran
234 Zlatko Lagumdzija Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001-2002, deputy Prime Minister 1993-1996, 2012-2015