The EU’s highest court ruled on Wednesday that member states must take in a share of refugees who reach Europe, dismissing complaints by Slovakia and Hungary.
Money, immigration, legal entanglements and the future of Ireland are among the many issues in contention and doubt as EU and UK begin Brexit negotiations.
There were frustrations on both sides and continued profound disagreement on issues such as British payments and the role of EU courts after Brexit.
Prime Minister Theresa May, her authority diminished after losing her majority in a June election she did not need to call, has struggled to control rivals.
With little more than a year to settle divorce terms before Brexit, deal or no deal, EU national leaders want Theresa May to outline a detailed plan.
EU officials hope the British government shows more urgency about the Brexit deal when negotiators arrive in Brussels on Monday for first round of talks.
Talks begin amidst a politically uncertain environment, a weakened Conservative leadership and questions about the nature of Brexit itself.
The 1998 Good Friday Agreement foresees the holding of referendums on both sides of the Irish border on uniting the island if there is public support.
European Union leaders in an unprecedented show of unity will meet at a summit in Brussels where they will adopt tough guidelines for two years of Brexit talks.
Diplomats are still unsure how far apart some EU governments may be on the strategy post Brexit, though key players in Berlin, Paris and Brussels appear to be aligned.
The Scottish government is pushing for Britain and the EU to give Scotland special terms in any Brexit deal to keep it closer than England to EU markets.
Consensus will be a tall order in the coming days for the EU as they grapple with the same issues: refugees crisis, a fragile economy and Brexit.
Deaths in the Mediterranean and chaos across borders in the past year have seen a renewal of interest in offering ways for people to enter the EU legally.